The A1988 is PNP Transistor - 2SA1988 made by NEC.
A1988 pinout

Brief overview of the content in a A1988 PDF file

DATA SHEET Silicon Power Transistor 2SA1988 PNP SILICON TRANSISTOR POWER AMPLIFIER INDUSTRIAL USE DESCRIPTION The 2SA1988 is PNP Silicon Power Transistor that designed for audio frequency power amplifier www PACKAGE DIMENSIONS 15 7 MAX FEATURES High Voltage VCEO 200 V DC Current Gain hFE 70 to 200 TO 3P Package 1 0 3 2 0 2 4 7 MAX 1 5 20 5MAX 5 0 4 4 5 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 6 0 1 5 45 1 19 MIN 3 4MAX 2 3 ORDERING INFORMATION Type Number 2SA1988 Package MP 88 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS TA 25 C Collector to Base Voltage Collector to Emitter Voltage Emitter to Base Voltage Collector Current DC Collector Current pulse Total Power Dissipantion JunctionTemperature VCBO VCEO VEBO IC DC IC pulse 1 P2 2 TJ 200 200 5 0 7 0 10 100 150 55 to 150 2 TC 25 C V V V A A W C C 2 2 0 2 5 45 2 8 0 1 MP 88 1 Base 2 Collector 3 Emitter 4 Fin Collector Storage Tempreature Tstg 1 PW 300 s Duty Cycle 10 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS TA 25 C CHARACTERISTIC Collector Cutoff Current Emitter Cutoff Current DC Current Gain DC Current Gain Collector Saturation Voltage Base Saturation Voltage Gain Band width Product Output Capacitance SYMBOL ICBO IEBO hFE1 hFE2 VCE sat

[ Comprehensive information ]

Here are characteristics of PNP transistors:

Structure: A PNP transistor has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a thin P-type layer (base) sandwiched between two N-type layers (emitter and collector).

Polarity: In a PNP transistor, the majority charge carriers are holes, which flow from the emitter to the collector. The emitter is negative relative to the base, and the collector is positive relative to the base.

Current flow: When a small current is applied to the base terminal, it allows a much larger current to flow from the emitter to the collector. This is called amplification or gain, and it makes the PNP transistor useful as an electronic switch or amplifier.

Voltage levels: The voltage levels in a PNP transistor are opposite to those in an NPN transistor. In a PNP transistor, the base-emitter junction is forward-biased and the collector-base junction is reverse-biased.

Biasing: PNP transistors are biased in the opposite direction to NPN transistors. To turn on a PNP transistor, the base must be more negative than the emitter, and to turn it off, the base must be more positive than the emitter.

Manufacturers : NEC

NEC - A1988 Datasheet PDF


PNP Transistor - 2SA1988

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